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Chicago Manual Of Style Formatting

Incorporating Images Into The Text Of Your Paper

Chicago Manual Style (CMS) Formatting
  • If you chose to incorporate images into the text of your paper, the image should appear as soon as possible after the first text reference to it.
  • Images should bear numbers, and all text references to them should be by the numbers The word figure should be lowercased and fully spelled out, unless in parenthetical references .
  • Below the image, the caption will begin with Figure or Fig. followed by a number and period.
  • A caption may consist of a word or two, an incomplete or a complete sentence, several sentences, or a combination.
  • Within a caption, most titles will be capitalized and italicized.
  • A brief statement of the source of an illustration, known as a credit line, is usually appropriate and sometimes required by the owner of the illustration.
  • A credit line usually appears at the end of a caption, sometimes in parentheses.
  • In addition to author, title, publication details, and copyright date, the credit line should include any page or figure number. If the work being credited is listed in the bibliography or reference list, only a shortened form need appear in the credit line
  • Illustrations from works in the public domain may be reproduced without permission. For readers information, however, a credit line is appropriate.

What Is A Chicago Citation Generator

A Chicago Citation Generator is a software tool that automatically generates citations and bibliographies in the Chicago citation style.

Citations can be created by entering an identifying piece of information about a source, such as a website URL, book ISBN, or journal article DOI to the generator. The generator will then create a fully formatted citation in the Chicago style containing all the required information for the source.

Chicago style citations are used to give credit to the authors of supporting work that has been used to write an academic paper or article.

Chicago Style Paper Page Layout

Like most style guides, Chicago style paper formatting has a specific plan and page layout. However, since the main Chicago style guide is designed mostly for published work, Chicago offers students a handy guide created by Kate L. Turabian. The Turabian style of the Chicago Manual of Style works well to break down the general formatting guidelines for creating your student research paper in Chicago.

To keep things simple, lets look at the basic formatting rules first.

  • Times New Roman 12 pt. font recommended
  • ½ inch indent for the beginning of paragraphs
  • Header with the page number in the right corner

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Examples Of How To Arrange Reference List Entries

1. Unknown, Uncertain or Anonymous Authors

Note: Organize alphabetically and avoid using “Anonymous”. When a work is of unknown origin, use the first word of its title, excluding definite or indefinite articles which may be transposed to the end of the title.

When the author’s name is known but does not appear on the title page place it before the title as you would normally, but in . When the author’s name is uncertain, indicate so with a question mark inside the .


Parsons, Elsie Clews. 1969. Folk-lore of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. Reprint, Chicago: Afro-Am Press.

Passing Race, A. 1929. Canadian Magazine.

Peterkin, Julia. 1927. Black April. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co.

. Passing Race, A, 1929. Canadian Magazine.

2. Author of One Work is First Co-Author of Another

Note: Single author works always precede co-authored works.

Shor, Ira. 1986. Culture wars: School and society in the conservative restoration, 1969-1982. Boston: Routledge and K. Paul.

Shor, Ira. and Paul Friere. 1987. A pedagogy of liberation: Dialogues on transforming education. New York: Bergin and Garvey.

3. Multiple Works by Same Author: Using “three em” Dashes

The three-em dash serves the same purpose as “ditto” marks. When an author appears consecutively, associated with different titles, a three-em dash may replace the name after the first entry.

Nesbitt, P.B. 1998a. Zoning laws and neighborhood crises. Knoxville, TN: Wachese Press.

Notes And Bibliography Style

Chicago Manual Of Style Outline Format / Chicago Manual Of Style ...

This style uses superscript numbers at the ends of sentences. These numbers alert readers that the sentence contains information from another source. Each superscript number refers to a note.

The notes are located at the bottom of the page or at the end of the paper, chapter, or book .

  • Footnotes make it very easy for readers to find your source, but they can interrupt the document flow.
  • Endnotes tend to reduce distraction on the page, but then the reader must flip pages to find the source you cite.

Unless your instructor has told you otherwise, the choice between footnotes and endnotes is up to you. You just need to be consistent and stick to one style or the other.

If you dont plan to have a bibliography at the end of your work, make sure you use the full footnote citation form the first time you cite from a work. After the first citation, any other citations to the same work can then use a shortened form.

Updates to IbidIts important to note that previous editions of the CMOS encouraged the use of ibid when the same source was cited multiple times in a row. Ibid is a Latin word meaning in the same place.

The 17th edition of the CMOS, however, overturns this recommendation because the use of ibid can be confusing for readers and authors can easily cite to the wrong source if they are not careful.

  • Robisheaux, Langenburg, 58
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    How Do I Accurately Cite My Sources With Cite This For Me

    Are you battling to get your Chicago citations finished in time? Feeling the pressure of imminent deadlines? Remove all the pain of citations with the Cite This For Me intuitive and accurate citation generator.

    Cite This For Me is committed to educating academic writers across the globe in the art of accurate citing. We believe it is essential that you equip yourself with the knowledge of why you need to use a referencing system, how best to insert citations in the main body of your assignment, and how to accurately compile a bibliography. At first, referencing may seem like a waste of time when you would much rather be focusing on the actual content of your work, but after reading this extensive Chicago style citation guide we hope that you will see referencing as a valuable, lifelong skill that is worth honing.

    Our multi-platform tool is designed to fulfill all of your referencing needs whether youre working at home, in the library, or on-the-go.

    Sign up for free now to add and edit each Chicago citation on the spot, import and export full projects or individual entries, and save your work in the cloud. Or step it up a notch with our browser extension work smarter by citing web pages, articles, books and videos directly from your browser while you research online.

    Stand on the shoulders of giants by accurately citing your source material using the Cite This For Me fast, accessible and free Chicago style citation maker.

    Cite This For Me Chicago Citation Generator

    Our mission at Cite This For Me is to educate students on the benefits of utilizing multiple sources in their written work and the importance of accurately citing all source material. This guide has been written to support students, writers and researchers by offering clear, well-considered advice on the usage of Chicago citations.

    We understand that it is easy to inadvertently plagiarize your work under the mounting pressure of expectation and deadlines. Thats why weve created this generator to automate the citing process, allowing you to save valuable time transcribing and organizing your citations. So, rather than starting from scratch when your essay, article, or research is due, save yourself the legwork with the Cite This For Me citation generator. Its a quick and easy way to cite any source.

    There are thousands of other citation styles out there the use of which one varies according to scholarly discipline, college requirements, your professors preference or the publication you are writing for. Sign up to Cite This For Me to select from over thousands of widely used global college styles, including college variations of each.

    Keep reading our comprehensive guide for practical advice and examples that will help you create each Chicago style citation with ease. If you need further information or examples, consult The Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed. .

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    What Makes Something Definitively Chicago Style

    When people talk about Chicago style rules, they are most often referring either to punctuation or source citations. In the case of punctuation, Chicago is the standard for US style in book publishing, whereas Oxford style is generally associated with British style. Some examples of a few notable differences are below:

    • Chicago prefers double quotation marks Oxford prefers single .
    • In Chicago style, periods and commas go inside closing quotation marks, like this, whereas Oxford puts them after, like this, though there are exceptions .
    • Chicago uses em dashes with no space before or afterlike this. Usage at Oxford varies, but in British style many publishers prefer spaced en dashes like this.
    • Oxford style is usually associated with the Oxford commathe comma before the conjunction in a series of three or more . But this comma has also always been Chicago style. CMOS refers to it as a serial comma.
    • On spelling, Chicago prefers the spellings at Merriam-Webster.com Oxford follows Oxfords dictionaries, starting with the Oxford English Dictionary.

    This section was adapted from content contributed by Russell Harper, the editor of The Chicago Manual of Styles Online Q& A.

    Formatting Your Bibliography Or Reference List

    Completed Paper Formatted in Chicago Manual of Style

    Bibliographies and reference lists are located at the end of your paper. You should include every source you cite in your bibliography or reference list.

    Here are a few guidelines to follow:

    • Center your title at the top of the page.
    • Organize entries alphabetically by the last name of the author .
    • Each entry should be single-spaced with a blank line between entries.
    • Each entry should also have a half-inch hanging indent.

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    Example Of Chicago Citation For Online Videos

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

  • Habitats Work in Texas After Hurricane Harvey, Habitat for Habitat for Humanity, published on September 11, 2019, YouTube video, 01:35, .
  • In the bibliography:

    Habitats Works in Texas After Hurricane Harvey. Habitat for Humanity. Published on September 11, 2019. YouTube video, 01:35. .

    Citing Sources With More Than 1 Author

    If there are two or three authors, include their full names in the order they appear on the source.

    In the shortened form, list the last names of all authors of a work with two or three authors.


  • 1st Author First name Last name and 2nd Author First name Last name, Title , page number.
  • 1st Author Last name and 2nd Author Last name, Shortened title, page number.
  • Example:

  • Alexander Aciman and Emmett Rensin, Twitterature: The Worlds Greatest Books in Twenty Tweets or Less , 47-48.
  • Aciman and Rensin, Twitterature, 25.
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    Full Notes Vs Short Notes

    Citations can take the form of full notes or short notes. Full notes provide complete source information, while short notes include only the authors last name, the source title, and the page number of the cited passage. The usual rule is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and a short note for subsequent citations of the same source.

    Guidelines can vary across fields, though sometimes you might be required to use full notes every time, or conversely to use short notes every time, as long as all your sources are listed in the bibliography. Its best to check with your instructor if youre unsure which rule to follow.

    Example Of Chicago Citation For Online Or Database Journals

    The Chicago Manual of Style Online_ Chicago
  • Trine Schreiber, “Conceptualizing Students Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzkis Practice Theory,” Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 : 346-363. .
  • In the bibliography:

    Schreiber, Trine. “Conceptualizing Students Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzkis Practice Theory.” Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 : 346-363. .

    Our Citation Machine Chicago citation generator helps you create your references in just a few clicks. Give it a whirl and watch the magic unfold!

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    Cms Directory Of Reference List Formatting Rules

    Book and Book Parts

    1. Book with Unknown Author

    References List Format:When no author is listed on the title or copyright page, begin the entry with the title of the work. In the bibliography, alphabetize the entry by the first word other than A, An, or The.


    Letting Ana Go. New York: Simon Pulse, 2013.

    2. Book with Group or Corporate Author

    References List Format:Use the corporation or group as the author it may also be the publisher.


    International Monetary fund. Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2010.

    3. Book with One Author

    References List Format:When citing a book, use the information from the title page and the copyright page , not from the bookâs cover or a library catalog.


    Goodwin, Doris Kearns. The Bully Pulpit: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and the Golden Age of Journalism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2013.

    4. Book with Two Authors

    Note: Names must always appear in the same order as found on the Title page of the work being cited.

    References List Format:List the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page. In a note, list the first name for each author first. In the bibliography, list the first authorâs last name first and list the first names for each other author first.


    Jerin, Robert A., and Laura J. Moriarity. The Victims of Crime. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.

    5. Book with Three Authors



    Chicago Style Block Quotes

    Another aspect of a Chicago style paper worth paying attention to is a block quote. It has way different formatting compared to other citations and implies using a direct quotation of prose or poetry longer than 100 words.While formatting a block quote, you dont need to put your text into the quotation marks and use double-spacing. Make a one-line space, start your quote and indent all the piece to 0.5 inch. Make another one-line space after the quotes end before proceeding to your text. If it’s too mind-boggling, try term paper writing services instead.Take a glance at the example of block quotes:

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    Example Of Chicago Citation For Chapters In A Book

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

  • Laura Aymerich-Franch and Maddalena Fedele, “Student’s Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education,” in Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, ed. Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan , 35-36.
  • In the bibliography:

    Aymerich-Franch, Laura, and Maddalena Fedele. “Student’s Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education.” In Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, edited by Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan, 35-36. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014.

    Bibliography Or Reference List

    How to Format your Paper in Chicago (Notes-Bibliography) Style

    At the end of your paper, youll likely include a bibliography or a reference list .

    Bibliographies and reference lists are not double-spaced, but leave a blank line between entries.

    If an entry extends onto a second line, a ½ inch indent should be applied to all but the first line of the entry.

    If you have to create a Chicago style annotated bibliography, follow the same format as a normal bibliography, but indent and double-space the annotations under each source reference.

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    What Is The History Of The Chicago Manual Of Style

    Opening in 1891, the University of Chicago Press was one of the original divisions of the University of Chicago . The staff at the Press soon decided that maintaining a consistent, professional style would be essential to streamlining the Presss publishing across many disciplines, and drew up an initial style sheet that was circulated to the university community.

    The first iteration of the Manual as we know it today was published in 1906 as Manual of Style: Being a Compilation of the Typographical Rules in Force at the University of Chicago Press, to Which Are Appended Specimens of Type in Use.

    The Manual has been revised numerous times, including a major revisionthe 12th edition in 1969that definitively established the Manual as an industry leader on style matters. The first edition to incorporate Chicago in the title was the 13th edition, published in 1982 previous titles had been variations on A Manual of Style. The change reflected the way readers typically referred to the manual.

    Over the years, each edition has sought to address contemporary questions from readers that have arisen via the continued evolution of language and technology. For example, the proliferation of computersincluding digital publishing techniques facilitated by the internet and social mediahave created a host of new style-related questions, many of which are addressed in recent editions.

    Historical content adapted from The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

    How To Cite A Website In Chicago Author

    Reference list



    DeSilver, Drew. 2018. “The Real Value of a $15 Minimum Wage Depends on Where You Live.” Pew Research Center. Last modified October 10, 2018. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/10/the-real-value-of-a-15-minimum-wage-depends-on-where-you-live/.



    After youre through writing your paper, run it through the BibMe plagiarism checker. Its advanced technology provides grammar suggestions and spots instances of accidental plagiarism. Try it out now!

    Edited and written by Elise Barbeau and Michele Kirschenbaum. Elise is a citation expert and has her masters degree in public history/library science. She has experience in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing. Michele is a certified library media specialist who loves citations and teaching. Shes been writing about citing sources since 2014.

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