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How To Cite Sources In Chicago Style

How To Cite Dictionary And Encyclopedia Entries In Chicago Style

How to cite in Chicago style

According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, well-known reference books, including major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies. Lesser known reference books can be cited in the bibliography.

The abbreviation “s.v.” means sub verbo, which is Latin for “under the word.”

Chicago style formatting in the footnotes and endnotes:

  • Name of dictionary or encyclopedia, Numbered ed. , s.v. term.
  • If found online:

  • Name of dictionary or encyclopedia, s.v. “term,” accessed Month Day Year, url.
  • In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name of Author. Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia. Numbered ed. Location of Publisher: Publisher, Year.

    How To Cite Chapters Or Articles From A Book In Chicago Style

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

    First name, Last name of Chapter Author, Chapter or Article Title, in Book Title, ed. First Name Last Name of Editor , page range.

    In the bibliography:

    Last name, First name. “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by First Name Last Name, page range. Publication Place: Publisher, Year.

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    Chicago Style: Citing Primary Sources

    The Chicago Manual of Style does not provide one prescriptive means by which to cite all primary sources. Thus, when you cite primary sources you need to consider carefully the type of source you are citing and the way in which you are accessing that source.

    Sometimes, you would cite a primary source in the same way that you would cite a source written today. For example, there is no difference in citing a book or newspaper article written 100 years ago and one written last year.

    However, often you will want to cite primary sources that have been reprinted in books or websites. When you do, it is essential that you make clear to your reader information about both the original source and the book, webpage, or archive from which you accessed it. In documenting the original source, you need to include who wrote the original source, what kind of source it is , and the date the original source was written. When documenting how you accessed the source, you must provide publication information for a book, a URL for a website, or a location for an archive.

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    How To Cite Sheet Music In Chicago Style

    According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, cite sheet music the same way as you cite books.

    Once youve styled each and every reference, take a minute to run your paper through our plagiarism checker. Its the perfect go-to resource when youre in need of another set of eyes to scan your paper!

    Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a masters degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.

    Example Of Chicago Citation For Online Or Database Journals

    Citing Primary Sources (Chicago Style)
  • Trine Schreiber, “Conceptualizing Students Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzkis Practice Theory,” Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 : 346-363. .
  • In the bibliography:

    Schreiber, Trine. “Conceptualizing Students Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzkis Practice Theory.” Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 : 346-363. .

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    How Do You In

    Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the authors last name and the year of publication, for example: .

    What Is Chicago Style

    Chicago citation style was created by the University of Chicago. It is commonly used for citing sources in History and occasionally in the Humanities, Sciences, and Social Sciences. Chicago style has two formats:

    • The Notes and Bibliography style is preferred by many in humanities disciplines, including history, literature, and the arts. Citations are provided in footnotes or endnotes and are usually accompanied by a bibliography.
    • The is recommended for the physical, natural, and social sciences.Sources are cited using parenthetical in-text citation and full details are provided in a reference or works cited list.

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    They Provide Hard Evidence Of Ideas

    Having many citations from a wide variety of sources related to their idea means that the student is working on a well-researched and respected subject. Citing sources that back up their claim creates room for fact-checking and further research. And, if they can cite a few sources that have the converse opinion or idea, and then demonstrate to the reader why they believe that that viewpoint is wrong by again citing credible sources, the student is well on their way to winning over the reader and cementing their point of view.

    Which Chicago Style Should You Use

    Citing Your Sources in Chicago Style (17th Edition)

    First, you need to decide whether you are using notes or author-date in-text citations. You can usually find out from your instructor or syllabus which style you should use.

    The notes and bibliography system is usually preferred in humanities subjects like literature, history and the arts. The author-date system is preferred in the sciences, including social sciences.

    The styles are similar in the information they present, but they differ in terms of the order, location, and format of that information. Its important to use one style consistently, and not to confuse the two.

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    Citation Styles Are Always Changing

    The concept of citations always stays the same. It is a means of preventing plagiarism and demonstrating where you relied on outside sources. The specific style rules, however, can and do change regularly. For example, in 2018 alone, 46 new citation styles were introduced, and 106 updates were made to exiting styles. At EasyBib, we are always on the lookout for ways to improve our styles and opportunities to add new ones to our list.

    Example Of Chicago Citation For Government Publication

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

  • Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014, prepared by The Department of Justice .
  • In the bibliography:

    Department of Justice. Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014. Washington, DC, 2014.

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    Example Of Chicago Citation For E

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

  • Michael J. Baker, The Marketing Book , 89, .
  • In the bibliography:

    Baker, Michael J. The Marketing Book. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. .

    If you understand how to structure your references easily, thanks to this thorough guide, and are looking for help with the written portion of your paper, look no further! There are tons of Citation Machine grammar guides to help you write with ease. Heres just one of our many useful pages: Positive & Negative Adjectives.

    Example Of Chicago Citation For Conference Paper

    Citing Primary Sources (Chicago Style)

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

  • Craig Myerson, Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware (Power-Point presentation, The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.
  • In the bibliography:

    Myerson, Craig. Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware. Power-point presentation presented at The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.

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    Example Of Chicago Citation For A Web Page

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

  • Sujan Patel, “15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015,” Entrepreneur, January 12, 2015. .
  • In the bibliography:

    Patel, Sujan. 15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015. Entrepreneur. January 12, 2015. .

    Dont forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for websites quickly and accurately.

    What Is Paraphrase And Examples

    Paraphrasing involves taking a passage either spoken or written and rewording it. Writers often paraphrase sentences and paragraphs to deliver information in a more concise way, as youll see in the examples below. Basically, you are writing something in your own words that still expresses the original idea.

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    How To Cite Blogs In Chicago Style

    *According to the 17th edition of the manual, blogs are not typically cited in bibliographies. They are generally cited in the footnotes/endnotes section. Of course, if the writer or professor prefers a full bibliographic reference, one can be created.

    Style notes and bibliographic references the same way as you would an online newspaper, but include in parentheses immediately following the title of the blog.

    In the footnotes and endnotes:

  • First name Last name, “Title of Blog Post,” Title of Blog , Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post, URL.
  • In the bibliography:

    Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Blog.” Name of Blog Site . Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post. URL.

    A Brief History Of The Style

    Carleton University Library: Citing sources using Chicago Style

    The Chicago format dates back to 1891 when the University of Chicago Press opened. The Press housed typesetters and compositors who were working on setting and deciphering complicated scientific material in fonts such as Hebrew and Ethiopic. A style sheet was devised with the aim of maintaining consistency throughout the typesetting process from the typesetter, to the compositor, to the proofreader.

    Over the years the University Press stylebook and style sheet developed into a pamphlet used by the entire college community, before becoming a 200-page book in 1906: Manual of Style: Being a compilation of the typographical rules in force at the University of Chicago Press, to which are appended specimens of type in use also known as the first edition of the Manual. Todays thousand-page 16th edition Chicago style citation manual provides authors, editors, publishers, copywriters and proofreaders across the globe with the authoritative text on the style.

    The 16th edition of the Chicago citation manual was the first edition to be published both in hardcover and online. The manual reflects the changes undergone by the publishing industry in response to the digital age, and the subsequent evolution in the way in which authors and publishers work. It addresses a diverse range of types that define academic publishing today from URLs and DOIs to ebooks, and foreign languages, and provides comprehensive examples that illustrate how to cite online and digital sources.

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    How Do I Accurately Cite My Sources With Cite This For Me

    Are you battling to get your Chicago citations finished in time? Feeling the pressure of imminent deadlines? Remove all the pain of citations with the Cite This For Me intuitive and accurate citation generator.

    Cite This For Me is committed to educating academic writers across the globe in the art of accurate citing. We believe it is essential that you equip yourself with the knowledge of why you need to use a referencing system, how best to insert citations in the main body of your assignment, and how to accurately compile a bibliography. At first, referencing may seem like a waste of time when you would much rather be focusing on the actual content of your work, but after reading this extensive Chicago style citation guide we hope that you will see referencing as a valuable, lifelong skill that is worth honing.

    Our multi-platform tool is designed to fulfill all of your referencing needs whether youre working at home, in the library, or on-the-go.

    Sign up for free now to add and edit each Chicago citation on the spot, import and export full projects or individual entries, and save your work in the cloud. Or step it up a notch with our browser extension work smarter by citing web pages, articles, books and videos directly from your browser while you research online.

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    Why Bother With Citation Check Out Our Academic Integrity Guide For A Quick Introduction

    In all types of research and scholarly writing, it is important to cite your sources in order to:

    • Help readers identify and locate the source you used.

    Readers may want to locate the source you have cited, to verify the information or to learn more about the topic. A proper citation includes all of the information for readers to locate the source.

    • Provide evidence that your position is well-researched.

    Scholarly writing is grounded in research. Citations strengthen your argument by demonstrating that your position is thoroughly researched.

    • Give credit to the author of ideas which are not your own, and thereby avoid plagiarism.

    Giving proper credit to those whose ideas, words, and thoughts you use is not only respectful to those authors, but also helps you avoid plagiarism. Plagiarism is a serious academic offense, usually consisting of “the submission by a student of the writings, ideas or data of another individual as the students own in any essay or assignment. Avoid the consequences of plagiarism by giving proper references to your sources .

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    Example : Online Database

    For example, if you access a newspaper article published in the past using an online database, you would cite that source in the same way that you would a newspaper article written today.

    First Footnote

    1. Frances Balfour, Womens Place in the New Order, Times , 27 April 1921,

    Subsequent Footnotes

    2. Balfour, Womens Place in the New Order.


    Balfour, Frances. Womens Place in the New Order. Times , 27 April 1921.

    Example 2: Online Repository – Letter

    If you access a source from an online repository, such as the National Archives or Canadian Mysteries, you would cite the source according to its type but also add information about the website from which you accessed the source.

    First Footnote

    1. Alan H. Ross to Blodwen Davies, Letter, Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, June 1, 1930, Canadian Mysteries, .

    Subsequent Footnotes

    2. Ross to Blodwen Davies.


    Ross, Alan. Alan H. Ross to Blodwen Davies, June 1, 1930. From Canadian Mysteries, .

    Web Sources With No Date

    Citing Primary Sources (Chicago Style)

    Where neither a publication date nor a revision date is available, include the date when you accessed the page instead. Only use this when there are no other options.

    Author last name, First name. Page Title. Website Name. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

    Utrecht University. Strategic Themes. Accessed June 15, 2019. https://www.uu.nl/en/research/profile/strategic-themes.

    Page Title, Website Name, accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

    1. Strategic Themes, Utrecht University, accessed June 15, 2019, https://www.uu.nl/en/research/profile/strategic-themes.

    Author last name, Shortened Page Title.

    2. Utrecht University, Strategic Themes.

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    Why Should I Use A Chicago Citation Generator

    Citing sources is often an afterthought in paper writing because formatting citations correctly is time-consuming and confusing, and staying on top of source management manually can be hard. A citation generator makes this easier by:

    • Managing the recording and organization of every citation for you

    In short, there is no reason not to use a citation generator in academic writing.

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