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How To Cite Using Chicago Style

How To Cite Photos In Powerpoint Using Different Referencing Styles

How to cite a website in Chicago style | Chegg Writing

Below is a list of various citation methods you can use when citing images in PowerPoint. Since most images used in PowerPoint presentations are taken online from different websites, we have mentioned the method below to cite such images. For images taken from books, artwork, or maps, see the respective style guide to refer to the citation format.

Abbreviating Books Of The Bible

When referred to in running text, books of the Bible need not be abbreviated:

However, abbreviations should be used when a Bible citation appears in parentheses or in a note. There are two widely used abbreviation styles: traditional abbreviations and shorter abbreviations.

In the traditional abbreviations, some shorter names are not abbreviated, and a period appears after all names that are abbreviated.

In the shorter abbreviations, all names are abbreviated, usually to two or three letters, and no period is used.

Traditional abbreviations

Where Should Citations Appear In The Text

The author-date style gives you some flexibility in where you place your citations in the text.

Most commonly, you will put the citation at the end of the relevant sentence . You can also integrate it into the sentence. If you name the author in your sentence, you only need to include the date and page number in parentheses.

Multiple citations can also be combined within one set of parentheses using a semicolon.

As you can see in the Valentine citation, its not always necessary to include a page numberonly when youre referring to a specific part of the text. If you want to cite the text as a whole, you can leave out the page number.

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How To Cite An Academic Or A Scientific Journal Article In Chicago Style

The citation format for academic and scientific journal articles is similar to the format for non-academic magazines, but also includes the journals volume and issue numbers. When youre writing your reference list or bibliography, remember its purpose is to help readers find and consult the sources you reference. Theyre potentially reading your work to conduct their own research, so including a comprehensive list of sources is like giving them a valuable map of your research journey.

Use this citation format for academic and scientific journal articles:

Last name, First name or First initial of author. Article title. Journal

title vol. #, no. # : ##.

Sermais, Jane. Revisiting Jurassic Park. Film Studies 16, no. 3 : 1013.

Create A Citation Now

Guide to Chicago Style Citations
  • The Chicago Manual of Style by University of Chicago Press Editorial StaffCall Number: Z 253 .U69 2017ISBN: 9780226287058Publication Date: 2017-09-05
  • A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian Wayne C. Booth Gregory G. Colomb Joseph M. Williams University of Chicago Press Staff ISBN: 9780226823362Publication Date: 2007-04-15

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th EditionA Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations

  • This provides a comparison of EndNote Desktop, EndNote Online, Zotero and RefWorks citation management applications

Zotero Citation Manager

Zotero is a free app that lets you create and save a library of your sources, take notes, and use those sources with Word, Google Docs, or LibreOffice to integrate the citations in your paper and create a properly formatted bibliography. Recommended for Undergraduates and all levels of students in the Social Sciences or Humanities. You need to have your own personal computer in order to use the word processor integration to create bibliographies

RefWorks Citation Manager

EndNote Citation Manager

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Chicago Style Citation Example: Online Journal

Notes and bibliography formula:

Full note Author first name Last name, Journal Article Title, Journal Name Volume, no. Issue : Page range. DOI/URL.
Short note
Bibliography entry Author last name, First name. Journal Article Title. Journal Name Volume, no. Issue : Page range. DOI/URL.

Notes and bibliography Chicago style citation example:

Full note:

Simon Schama, Fine-Cutting Clio. The Public Historian 25, no. 3 : 15. https://doi.org/10.1525/tph.2003.25.3.15.

Short note:

Schama, Simon. 2022. When History is Weaponized for War. Financial Times. May 6, 2022. https://www.ft.com/content/25a57741-34e6-403b-b216-1704448afc0a

How To Cite A Website In Chicago Style: Online Articles And Blogs

To cite online articles and blogs in Chicago style, follow the same formula above but with a few minor changes. Perhaps the most significant change is that the website name for online newspapers, magazines, and blogs is set in italics.

Drake, Nadia. What is the multiverseand is there any evidence it really exists?

National Geographic, May 4, 2022.


Furthermore, you have to add a label for blogs. Simply add the word blog in parentheses after the name of the website.

Kramer, Lindsay. Punctuation: Everything you need to know. Grammarly ,

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How To Cite A Website In Chicago Style: Social Media

Its easier to cite a social media website in Chicago style than in the style of its counterparts: APA and MLA. Simply follow the standard formula, adding the authors handle in parentheses after their proper name. Social media posts dont have titles, so instead use the text of the post itself. If the post is longer than 160 characters, cut the post off and add an ellipsis.

If the account belongs to an organization, you can use the organizations name in place of the author.

Last name, First name of author or organization name . Text of post

under 160 characters in quotations. Website name without italics, Month,

Day, Year of posting. URL.

Grammarly . The more concise your message, the more likely it is

to get a response. Twitter, May 2, 2022.


How To Cite Newspapers And Other Articles In Chicago Style

Citing – How to Cite in Chicago/Turabian Style: A Three Minute Tutorial

Following the required style guide is a key component of successful academic writing. Depending on your field, this could be APA, MLA, the Chicago Manual of Style, or another, less common style guide. Formatting your citations correctly is an important part of adhering to the style guide.

Articles from academic and scientific journals are likely to be the most common kinds of that you reference in your academic writing. However, you might also need to cite newspaper and magazine articles sometimes. To make citing your sources in Chicago style easier, weve compiled this list of common periodical citation formats.

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Tips For Citing Images In Powerpoint

Citations should be used with care since they are essential to a professional and ethical presentation. Here are some tips on how to cite an image in PowerPoint:

  • Proofread Properly: Make sure to verify your spelling and grammar. Make certain that the authors names are correctly spelled. Comparing your credits to an example cite that adheres to the same style standard may be beneficial. Check that your punctuation is in the proper place.
  • Refer to your style guide: If you get perplexed, consult your style guide. MLA, APA, and Chicago-style rules are available online and in print. Ensure you cite reliable sources, preferably the style guide or an academic library or writing center.
  • Use trusted websites for pictures.: Citations may be simpler to create when looking for photos on sites that make license, copyright, and author information readily available. Licenses and copyright details are often available from familiar stock picture sources. Photos may also be obtained from library databases or reputable media.

If you wish to make certain changes to your images for citation, you can use the morphing technique in PowerPoint to make it more appealing to the audience.

Watch this video to know the steps more clearly

How To Cite The Bible In Chicago Style

There are Chicago-style rules for citing scriptures and other religious texts. As the Bible is a very commonly cited text in academic writing, weve provided specific guidance and examples for it below.

The correct way to cite the Bible and other religious texts in Chicago style is notably different compared to other books. A Bible citation can either be written as a footnotelike in the note and bibliography systemas well as in text and parenthetically. Note that a Bible citation is not required in a bibliography.


Below is the standard format to cite the Bible in Chicago style:

1. Abbreviated Title of Book, Chapter:Verse .


1. Ps. 139:1315

In-text citation

When referencing a passage within the text, write out the name of the book and use a colon to separate the chapter and verse.


those who sow trouble in Job 4:8

Parenthetical citation

When referencing the Bible in a parenthetical citation, include the book abbreviation, the chapter and verse, separated by a colon, and the fully spelled-out version.


For subsequent parenthetical references, use the abbreviated format for the Bible version.


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How To Cite A Book In Chicago Style

TheChicago Manual of Style is used across multiple disciplines, from the humanities to sciences and social sciences. When citing primary or secondary sources in your research paper or other academic writing, its important to note that there are two varieties of Chicago-style citations: notes and bibliography or author-date. To cite a book in Chicago style, determine which of those two citation systems your area of study prefers.

Both citation systems include basic elements when referencing a book, like the authors name, title of the book, and publication information like the publish date, publication name, and location. Certain exceptions arise when citing a book in Chicago style, including e-book citations and when citing religious sources, such as the Bible.

Citing Private Web Content

Chicago Style: A referencing overview

Private digital contentemails, text messages, direct messages, but also content in private Facebook groups or other webpages not accessible to everyone should be cited as personal communications.

Citations of personal communications do not follow a standard format rather, you should just describe where the source youre citing comes from:

Footnote example

1. James Smith, Twitter direct message to author, September 19, 2018.

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Notes And Bibliography Or Author

The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanitiesincluding literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. The notes and bibliography system can accommodate a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that dont fit neatly into the author-date system.

The system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by authors last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Aside from the use of numbered notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style. Follow the links at the top of this page to see examples of some of the more common source types cited in both systems.

Most authors choose the system used by others in their field or required by their publisher. Students who are unsure of which system to use will find more information here.

For a more comprehensive look at Chicagos two systems of source citation and many more examples, see chapters 14 and 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style.

Group The Image And Citation

You can group the image and citation together so that they can be adjusted when you need to move or resize the image. To group the image and cited text, select both the image and text together and right-click on either of the two slide objects. Select Group > Group to bind them together.

Once grouped together, the image and citation can be resized and moved on the slide together via drag and drop.

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How To Cite A Book In Chicago Citation Style

When citing a book in the Chicago Manual style, there are two options: notes and bibliography or author-date. The variation you use will typically depend on your area of study.

Humanities such as literature, history, and the arts often use the notes and bibliography method, while the sciences and social sciences will use the author-date system.

Bibliography Or Reference List

How to Cite Using Chicago Style 16th ed.: Websites

At the end of your paper, youll likely include a bibliography or a reference list .

Bibliographies and reference lists are not double-spaced, but leave a blank line between entries.

If an entry extends onto a second line, a ½ inch indent should be applied to all but the first line of the entry.

If you have to create a Chicago style annotated bibliography, follow the same format as a normal bibliography, but indent and double-space the annotations under each source reference.

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How To Cite An Online Version Of A Print Article In Chicago Style

Citing an online version of a print article in Chicago style is very similar to citing the actual print version of the article. Use this format when citing this type of source in your reference list or bibliography:

Last name, First name of author. Article title. Newspaper name, Month

Day, Year. URL .

Note that Chicago style requires that your URLs start with http:// or https://.


Scordo, Michelle. Metacognition in Toddlers Ages 23. Family and Youth

Psychology, March 2, 2007. http://www.fypsych.org/articles/archive/2007

/metacognition-in-toddlers .

In Chicago style, cite articles in print magazines using the same format you use to cite print newspapers. Similarly, you use the same format to cite online magazines that you use to cite online articles.

Content Of Chicago Footnotes

The footnote contains the number of the citation followed by a period and then the citation itself. The citation always includes the authors name and the title of the text, and it always ends with a period. Full notes also include all the relevant publication information in parentheses .

If you quote a source or refer to a specific passage, include a page number or range. However, if the source doesnt have page numbers, or if youre referring to the text as a whole, you can omit the page number.

In short notes, titles of more than four words are shortened. Shorten them in a way that retains the keyword so that the text is still easily recognizable for the reader:

1. Mary Shelley, Frankenstein or, the Modern Prometheus, ed. M.K. Joseph , 91.2. Shelley, Frankenstein, 91.

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How To Cite An Image Or Photo In Chicago Manual Of Style

To cite an image or photo in Chicago style, you need the creators name, image title, date of origin, and the , in that specific order. These are the necessary parts for how to cite an image in Chicago style, although there are variations depending on what and how youre citing .

Most Chicago Manual of Style citations for images use the following formula, according to the most recent 17th edition:

Last name of creator, First name. Image title. Year of origin. Medium. Source of

image, URL if applicable.

The medium is simply the type of image, such as Painting, Photograph, or Table. The source of the image is wherever you saw the image, such as the name of a museum, website, or social media platform. The formula is a little different if you found the image in print, so below we explain in more detail how to cite images from a book in Chicago style.

In general, though, this formula works when referencing both primary and secondary sources in the bibliography. A complete citation should look like this example:

Tipton, William. Fortifications on Little Round Top. 1870. Photograph. Library of

Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2018652217.

If youre familiar with how to write a research paper in Chicago style, you might remember that you have two options for in-text citations: the author-date method and the footnote method.

The footnote system is a little more involved and uses two different types of footnotes, the full note and the short note.

Heres a tip:

What Is Chicago Style What Is Turabian

Citing Primary Sources (Chicago Style)

You may have heard the terms Chicago and Turabian used interchangeably and wondered what the difference is. Simply put, they are just about the same.

Turabian is a simpler version of Chicago style meant for students who are writing materials that will not be published. Since the CMOS is meant for material that is intended for publication, its often used by scholars, publishers, and other professional academics. The Turabian guide is shorter and includes information on formatting rules, the basics of researching and writing academic papers, and citation style. Despite these differences, these two books work in tandem both are considered to be official Chicago style.

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Website Authors And Dates

List the author of the web content where possible.

  • If no author is listed, begin a full note citation with the name of the page instead.
  • For short notes and bibliography entries, use the organizations name.
  • If the organizations name is the same as the website name, like a newspaper, then do not repeat this title later.

Most web sources should indicate the date of publication. Include whatever information is available for the month day and year. If one of these is missing, simply exclude the individual element. With web sources that are revised either in place of or in addition to the original publication, enter this new date with the words Last Modified preceding it.

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This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style , which was issued in 2017.

Please note that although these resources reflect the most recent updates in the The Chicago Manual of Style concerning documentation practices, you can review a full list of updates concerning usage, technology, professional practice, etc. at The Chicago Manual of Style Online.

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